Clinical chemistry tests include blood glucose measurements for diabetes and lipid profile (fats and cholesterol)
which assess heart disease risk. Other tests determine the function of organs like the liver and kidneys.
Haematology tests investigate diseases related to blood like anemia and some infections. They assess both blood
cells and blood plasma (liquid). These tests include blood counts, blood films and blood proteins.
Hormones regulate body processes like metabolism, growth and reproduction. Hormone imbalance can result in infertility, weight loss or gain, growth disorders, breast enlargement, excess facial hair in women, etc.
Microbiology involves testing for microscopic organisms, such as bacteria, viruses, archaea, fungi and protozoa
which are responsible for infections in the body. Some of the tests include typhoid, cholera and urinary tract infections.
Tumor markers are produced by body cells at higher levels in cancerous conditions. Cancers like liver, breast,
ovarian and prostate cancers can be identified using tumor markers. However, not all cancers can be identified that way.
These tests detect the presence of commonly abused drugs in bodily fluids. Drugs or their products can remain in body
fluids for variable periods of time. Drugs of abuse include cannabis (marijuana), cocaine and heroin.
These focus on identifying immune responses to foreign substances in the body like pathogens (disease causing microorganisms) and allergens. Tests include HIV, Hepatitis, allergy screens, etc.